Sigma Chemicals - Water Ball

Basic Pool/Spa Water Chemistry & Maintenance

from Pool Controls


Basic Chemistry Guidelines

CHLORINE (Free chlorine): 2ppm to 4ppm sanitises water & kills bacteria

COMBINED CHLORINE (Chloramines/Dead Chlorine): Zero, reduces chlorines effectiveness

STABILISER (Cyanurates/Sunscreen): 40ppm to 50ppm reduces chlorine consumption (outdoor applications)

pH (Acidity): 7.2 to 7.7 protects the pool/spa surface & equipment, changes the effectiveness of your chlorine (higher pH will reduce the chlorines effectiveness)

TOTAL ALKALINITY (TA): 80ppm to 150ppm protects pool/spa surfaces, stops pH changing too quickly

SALT/MINERALS: 3000ppm to 5000ppm (1200ppm to 2800ppm for XLS/XLM models) allows cell to produce free chlorine

CALCIUM HARDNESS: 90ppm to 300ppm protects pool/spa surfaces, best kept low to slow cell scaling

PHOSPHATE: Zero, reduces chlorine levels & promotes algae growth (is algae food)


Basic Pool/Spa Operation

It is advised that you run your chlorinator when the pool is being used if outside the daily filtration cycles. Just press the ON button on the front of your chlorinator or manually turn on you timer  if using a external timer & not using the chlorinator timer).

If using a pool cover, make sure the pool cover is removed for at least 3 days a week to stop the build up of combined chlorine (chloramines/dead chlorine).

The pool “cover mode” should be turned on when the pool cover is on & turned off when the pool cover is removed. Press the down/no to turn cover mode on, & press the down/no to turn cover mode off (for models with cover mode).


Normal Pool/Spa Maintenance

Maintenance frequency depends on the pool waters chlorine/acid demand, water balance, bather load, local climatic conditions & water temperature. The above will all effect chlorine/acid demand which can then increase maintenance frequency.


Daily Maintenance

– Your chlorinator will produce chlorine automatically based on your cell output %. Set you cell output % to satisfy your Pool/Spa’s daily chlorine requirements. For automatic feeders your set points will determine your chemical dosing targets.

– Clean skimmer baskets if required.

– Remove floating leaves if required.

– Remove any large accumulation of debris on the bottom with a leaf scoop.

– Check that the water level is high enough for the pump to operate correctly (water level should be in the middle of the skimmer mouth opening)


Weekly Maintenance

If the Pool/Spa is heavily used (such as in hot weather) it must be checked more frequently.

As a general guide it is recommended that the pool water check (home test kit) should be made at least twice weekly in the swimming season and once every 2 weeks in the non-swimming season.

Seek guidance from your local authority or qualified Pool/Spa maintenance technician if necessary.

– Check and clean pump and leaf baskets if required.

– Check filter and backwash the sand filter or clean cartridge filter as necessary.

– Make sure there is adequate diluted acid in the tank of the automatic feeder for the next week.

– Always add acid to the water, never water to acid.

– Test the pH & free chlorine levels in the Pool/Spa water.

– The free chlorine should be 2-4ppm & pH should be in the range 7.2 -7.7

– If the free chlorine is to low add chlorine or a pool shock, if pH is too low, check alkalinity then add sodium bicarbonate if required (buffer). Both pH and TA can be raised using buffer. Don’t correct your pH more than once a week. For automatic feeders turn off the acid feed for 24-48 hours when adding buffer/bi-carb.


Fortnightly Maintenance

– Get a full water test from your local pool shop or pool professional & adjust the water balance in accordance with above basic chemistry guidelines.


Monthly Maintenance

– Add a pool oxidiser or shock treatment.

– Check squeeze tubes visually for signs of wear & tear (systems with acid feed pump).

– Change water (spa applications only).


Quarterly, Half Yearly or Yearly Maintenance

– Lubricate squeeze tube & check all feed tubing, pump rotors & drum filters & replace if required.

– Squeeze tubes need to be replaced every 6 to 12 months. Take care as chemical will be in tubing.

– Clean salt cell if required, Pool/Spa calcium levels can build up on salt cell to a point where chlorine production stops or gas/flow issues occur.


YouTube Link here.

For expert advice, come in and speak with our staff at our Balcatta or Willetton stores, or contact us on 08 9345 2233 (option 1) or via our contact page here.

For more information on our Domestic products and services, view our Home Pool & Spa page.